Menü
Start
Anmelden / Registrieren
Suche
 
Start arrow Betriebswirtschaft & Management arrow Geteilte Führung
< Zurück   INHALT

4 Fazit

Geteilte Führung ist eine Antwort auf zahlreiche Herausforderungen des 21. Jahrhunderts, so dass eine intensive wissenschaftliche Auseinandersetzung damit notwendig ist (Raelin 2005). Ist geteilte Führung somit der Schlüssel zum Erfolg in Teams, wie es von Pearce et al. (2009) angesprochen wird? Ist geteilte Führung die effektivste Führungsform, wie es von Hoch, Pearce und Welzel (2010) thematisiert wird? Zweifelsfrei ist geteilte Führung als kollektive Führungsstruktur ein Thema, mit dem sich die Führungsforschung und -praxis weiterhin und vor allem noch intensiver auseinandersetzen muss, wie der hier dargestellte Überblick über die aktuelle Forschung zeigt.

Zusammenfassend lässt sich anhand der vorherigen Kapitel feststellen, dass geteilte Führung aus wissenschaftlicher Perspektive äußerst bedeutsam für die Führungsforschung ist. Allerdings werden die Studien der nächsten Jahre und die daraus resultierende Anwendung in der Praxis erst zeigen, ob geteilte Führung der Schlüssel zum Erfolg in Teams und Organisationen ist, oder ob sie lediglich eine von mehreren wichtigen Komponenten des Führungserfolgs darstellt. Zweifellos ist eine differenzierte Betrachtung von geteilter Führung notwendig, da sie – wenig überraschend – nicht automatisch zu besseren Ergebnissen führt.

Was Sie aus diesem Essential mitnehmen können

• Der Erfolg geteilter Führung hängt von unterschiedlichen Faktoren ab, so dass eine differenzierte Betrachtungsweise dieser Führungsstruktur notwendig ist.

• Es ist eine Unterscheidung verschiedener Formen geteilter Führung möglich,

z. B. verhaltensbasierte Messung vs. netzwerkbasierte Messung oder noch differenzierter koordiniert-geteilte Führung bis hin zu fragmentiert-geteilte Führung.

• Die empirischen Ergebnisse zu geteilter Führung haben in den letzten Jahren stark zugenommen, so dass bereits zahlreiche Antezedenzien und Konsequenzen geteilter Führung untersucht wurden.

• Abschließend lässt sich festhalten, dass geteilte Führung eine moderne Führungsstruktur ist, die in zahlreichen praktischen Kontexten verbreitet ist.

Literatur

Avolio, B. J., Jung, D. I., Murry, W., & Sivasubramaniam, N. (1996). Building highly developed teams: Focusing on shared leadership processes, efficacy, trust, and performance. In M. M. Beyerlein, D. A. Johnson & S. T. Beyerlein (Hrsg.), Advances in interdisciplinary studies of work teams (Vol. 3, S. 173–209). Greenwich: JAI Press.

Avolio, B. J., Sivasubramaniam, N., Murry, W. D., Jung, D., & Garger, J. W. (2003). Assessing shared leadership: Development and preliminary validation of a team multifactor leadership questionnaire. In C. Pearce & J. Conger (Hrsg.), Shared leadership. reframing the hows and whys of leadership (S. 143–172). Thousand Oaks: Sage.

Avolio, B. J., Walumbwa, F. O., & Weber, T. J. (2009). Leadership: current theories, research, and future directions. Annual Review of Psychology, 60, 421–449. doi:10.1146/annurev. psych.60.110707.163621.

Bales, R. F. (1954). In conference. Harvard Business Review, 32, 44–50.

Balkundi, P., & Kilduff, M. (2006). The ties that lead: A social network approach to leadership.

The Leadership Quarterly, 17, 419–439. doi:10.1016/j.leaqua.2006.01.001.

Balthazard, P., Waldman, D., Howell, J., & Atwater, L. (2004). Shared leadership and group interaction styles in problem-solving virtual teams. In Proceedings of the 37th hawaii international conference on system sciences.

Barry, D. (1991). Managing the bossless team: Lessons in distributed leadership. Organizational Dynamics, 20(1), 31–47. doi:10.1016/0090-2616(91)90081-J.

Barsh, J., Capozzi, M. M., & Davidson, J. (2008). Leadership and innovation. The McKinsey Quarterly, 1, 37–47.

Bass, B. M., & Avolio, B. J. (1994). Improving organizational effectiveness through transformational leadership. Thousand Oaks: Sage.

Bass, B. M., & Avolio, B. J. (1995). MLQ multifactor leadership questionnaire: Technical report. Redwood City: Mind Garden.

Beck, A. P., Eng, A. M., & Brusa, J. A. (1989). The evolution of leadership during group development. Group, 13(3–4), 155–164. doi:10.1007/BF01473148.

Bienefeld, N., & Grote, G. (2010). Emergency at 35000 ft.: how cockpit and cabin crews lead each other to safety. In Proceedings of the 29th EAAP conference. Budapest.

Boies, K., Lvina, E., & Martens, M. L. (2010). Shared leadership and team performance in a business strategy simulation. Journal of Personnel Psychology, 9(4), 195–202. doi:10.1027/1866-5888/a000021.

Bolden, R. (2011). Distributed leadership in organizations: A review of theory and research. International Journal of Management Reviews, 13(3), 251–269. doi:10.1111/j.1468-2370. 2011.00306.x.

Bono, J. E., & Judge, T. A. (2004). Personality and transformational and transactional leadership: a meta-analysis. Journal of Applied Psychology, 89(5), 901–910. doi:10.1037/ 0021-9010.89.5.901.

Bowers, D. G., & Seashore, S. E. (1966). Predicting organizational effectiveness with a fourfactor theory of leadership. Administrative Science Quarterly, 11(2), 238. doi:10.2307/ 2391247.

Brodbeck, F. C. (2008). Leadership in organizations. In N. Chmiel (Hrsg.), An introduction to work and organizational psychology. an european perspective (S. 281–304). Malden: Blackwell.

Brown, M. E., & Gioia, D. A. (2002). Making things click: Distributive leadership in an online division of an offline organization. The Leadership Quarterly, 13, 397–419. doi:10.1016/ S1048-9843(02)00123-6.

Brown, M. H. (1986). Distributed leadership and skilled performance as successful organization in social movements. Human Relations, 39(1), 65–79. doi:10.1177/ 001872678603900104.

Budd, J. W., Gollan, P. J., & Wilkinson, A. (2010). New approaches to employee voice and participation in organizations. Human Relations, 63(3), 303–310. doi:10.1177/ 0018726709348938.

Carson, J. B., Tesluk, P. E., & Marrone, J. A. (2007). Shared leadership in teams: an investigation of antecedent conditions and performance. Academy of Management Journal, 50(5), 1217–1234. doi:10.2307/20159921.

Carte, T. A., Chidambaram, L., & Becker, A. (2006). Emergent leadership in self-managed virtual teams. Group Decision and Negotiation, 15(4), 323–343. doi:10.1007/s10726-0069045-7.

Cawley, B. D., Keeping, L. M., & Levy, P. E. (1998). Participation in the performance appraisal process and employee reactions: A meta-analytic review of field investigations. Journal of Applied Psychology, 83(4), 615–633. doi:10.1037//0021-9010.83.4.615.

Conger, J. A., & Kanungo, R. N. (1988). The empowerment process: Integrating theory and practice. Academy of Management Review, 13(3), 471–482.

Dansereau, F., Graen, G., & Haga, W. J. (1975). A Vertical dyad linkage approach to leadership within formal organizations: A longitudinal investigation of the role making process. Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, 13, 46–78. doi:10.1016/00305073(75)90005-7.

Day, D. V., Gronn, P., & Salas, E. (2004). Leadership capacity in teams. The Leadership Quarterly, 15(6), 857–880. doi:10.1016/j.leaqua.2004.09.001.

Ensley, M. D., Hmieleski, K. M., & Pearce, C. L. (2006). The importance of vertical and shared leadership within new venture top management teams: Implications for the performance of startups. The Leadership Quarterly, 17(3), 217–231. doi:10.1016/j.leaqua.2006.02.002.

Ensley, M. D., Pearson, A., & Pearce, C. L. (2003). Top management team process, shared leadership, and new venture performance: A theoretical model and research agenda. Human Resource Management Review, 13(2), 329–346. doi:10.1016/S1053-4822(03)00020-2.

Fausing, M. S. l., Jeppesen, H. J., Jonsson, T., Lewandowski, J., & Bligh, M. (2012). Antecedents of shared leadership: Psychological empowerment and interdependence. In Proceedings of the 30th international congress of psychology. Cape Town.

Fiedler, F. E. (1964). A contingency model of leadership effectiveness. In Advances in experimental social psychology. New York: Academic Press.

Finley, N. E. (1994). Leadership: The collaborative process. Journal of Leadership & Organizational Studies, 1(3), 57–66. doi:10.1177/107179199400100307.

Fitzsimons, D., James, K. T., & Denyer, D. (2011). Alternative approaches for studying shared and distributed leadership. International Journal of Management Reviews, 13(3), 313–328. doi:10.1111/j.1468-2370.2011.00312.x.

Fleishman, E. A. (1953). The description of supervisory behavior. Journal of Applied Psychology, 37(1), 1–6. doi:10.1037/h0056314.

Friedrich, T. L., Vessey, W. B., Schuelke, M. J., Ruark, G. A., & Mumford, M. D. (2009). A framework for understanding collective leadership: The selective utilization of leader and team expertise within networks. The Leadership Quarterly, 20(6), 933–958. doi:10.1016/ j.leaqua.2009.09.008.

Gerstner, C. R., & Day, D. V. (1997). Meta-analytic review of leader-member exchange theory: Correlates and construct issues. Journal of Applied Psychology, 82(6), 827–844. doi:10.1037/0021-9010.82.6.827.

Gibb, C. A. (1954). Leadership. In G. Lindzey (Hrsg.), Handbook of social psychology.

Cambridge: Addison-Wesley.

Gockel, C., & Werth, L. (2010). Measuring and modeling shared leadership. Journal of Personnel Psychology, 9(4), 172–180. doi:10.1027/1866-5888/a000023.

Gressick, J., & Derry, S. J. (2010). Distributed leadership in online groups. International Journal of Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning, 5(2), 211–236. doi:10.1007/s11412010-9086-4.

Gronn, P. (2002). Distributed leadership as a unit of analysis. The Leadership Quarterly, 13(4), 423–451. doi:10.1016/S1048-9843(02)00120-0.

Gupta, V. K., Huang, R., & Niranjan, S. (2010). A longitudinal examination of the relationship between team leadership and performance. Journal of Leadership & Organizational Studies, 17(4), 335–350. doi:10.1177/1548051809359184.

Hallinger, P., & Richardson, D. (1988). Models of shared leadership: Evolving structures and relationships. The Urban Review, 20(4), 229–245. doi:10.1007/BF01120135.

Harris, P. R., & Harris, D. L. (1989). High performance team management. Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 10(4), 28–32. doi:10.1108/EUM0000000001141.

Heenan, D. A., & Bennis, W. (1999). Co-leaders: The power of great partnerships. New York: John Wiley & Sons.

Hernandez, M., Eberly, M. B., Avolio, B. J., & Johnson, M. D. (2011). The loci and mechanisms of leadership: Exploring a more comprehensive view of leadership theory. The Leadership Quarterly, 22(6), 1165–1185. doi:10.1016/j.leaqua.2011.09.009.

Hiller, N. J., Day, D. V., & Vance, R. J. (2006). Collective enactment of leadership roles and team effectiveness: A field study. The Leadership Quarterly, 17(4), 387–397. doi:0.1016/ j.leaqua.2006.04.004.

Hmieleski, K. M., Cole, M. S., & Baron, R. A. (2011). Shared authentic leadership and new venture performance. Journal of Management, 38(5), 1476–1499. doi:10.1177/ 0149206311415419.

Hoch, J. E., & Kozlowski, S. W. J. (2012). Leading virtual teams: Hierarchical leadership, structural supports, and shared team leadership. Journal of Applied Psychology. doi:10.1037/ a0030264.

Hoch, J. E., Pearce, C. L., & Welzel, L. (2010). Is the most effective team leadership shared? The impact of shared leadership, age diversity and coordination on team performance. Journal of Personnel Psychology, 9(3), 105–116. doi:10.1027/18665888/a000020.

Hollander, E. P. (1961). Some effects of perceived status on responses to innovative behavior.

Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 63(2), 247–50. doi:10.1037/h0048240.

Homans, G. C. (1958). Social behavior as exchange. American Journal of Sociology, 63(6), 597–606. doi:10.1086/222355.

Houghton, J. D., Neck, C. P., & Manz, C. C. (2003). Self-leadership and superleadership: The heart and art of creating shared leadership in teams. In C. Pearce & J. Conger (Hrsg.), Shared leadership. reframing the hows and whys of leadership (S. 123–140). Thousand Oaks: Sage.

House, R. J. (1971). A path goal theory of leader effectiveness. Administrative Science Quarterly, 16(3), 321–339. doi:10.2307/2391905.

Judge, T. A., & Piccolo, R. F. (2004). Transformational and transactional leadership: A meta-analytic test of their relative validity. Journal of Applied Psychology, 89(5), 755–768. doi:10.1037/0021-9010.89.5.755.

Judge, T. A., Bono, J. E., Ilies, R., & Gerhardt, M. W. (2002). Personality and leadership: A qualitative and quantitative review. Journal of Applied Psychology, 87(4), 765–780. doi:10.1037//0021-9010.87.4.765.

Judge, T. A., Piccolo, R. F., & Ilies, R. (2004). The forgotten ones? The validity of consideration and initiating structure in leadership research. Journal of Applied Psychology, 89(1), 36–51. doi:10.1037/0021-9010.89.1.36.

Katz, D., & Kahn, R. L. (1978). The social psychology of organizations. New York: Wiley.

Katz, D., Maccoby, N., & Morse, N. C. (1950). Productivity, supervision and morale in an office situation. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan.

Kempster, S., & Parry, K. W. (2011). Grounded theory and leadership research: A critical realist perspective. The Leadership Quarterly, 22(1), 106–120. doi:10.1016/ j.leaqua.2010.12.010.

Kerr, S., & Jermier, J. M. (1978). Substitutes for leadership: Their meaning and measurement. Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, 22, 375–403. doi:10.1016/00305073(78)90023-5146.

Kramer, M. W., & Crespy, D. A. (2011). Communicating collaborative leadership. The Leadership Quarterly, 22(5), 1024–1037. doi:10.1016/j.leaqua.2011.07.021.

Kramer, M. W. (2006). Shared leadership in a community theater group: Filling the leadership role. Journal of Applied Communication Research, 34(2), 141–162. doi:10.1080/ 00909880600574039.

Lawrence, L. C., & Smith, P. C. (1955). Group decision and employee participation. Journal of Applied Psychology, 39(5), 334–337. doi:10.1037/h0045797.

Lewin, K., Lippitt, R., & White, R. K. (1939). Patterns of aggressive behavior in experimentally created 'social climates. The Journal of Social Psychology, 10, 271–299. doi:0.1080/ 00224545.1939.9713366.

Likert, R. (1961). New patterns of management. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Mamman, A., Kamoche, K., & Bakuwa, R. (2012). Diversity, organizational commitment and organizational citizenship behavior: An organizing framework. Human Resource Management Review, 22(4), 285–302. doi:10.1016/j.hrmr.2011.12.003.

Manz, C. C., & Sims, H. P. (1980). Self-management as a substitute for leadership: A social learning theory perspective. Academy of Management Review, 5(3), 361–368. doi:10.5465/ AMR.1980.4288845.

Mathis, R. D., & Tanner, Z. (1991). Cohesion, adaptability, and satisfaction of family systems in later life. Family Therapy, 18(1), 47–60.

Maynard, M. T., Gilson, L. L., & Mathieu, J. E. (2012). Empowerment – fad or fab? A multilevel review of the past two decades of research. Journal of Management, 38(4), 1231–1281. doi:10.1177/0149206312438773.

Mayo, M., Meindl, J. R., & Pastor, J.-C. (2003). Shared leadership in work teams: A social network approach. In C. Pearce & J. Conger (Hrsg.), Shared leadership. reframing the hows and whys of leadership (S. 193–214). Thousand Oaks: Sage.

Mehra, A., Smith, B. R., Dixon, A. L., & Robertson, B. (2006). Distributed leadership in teams: The network of leadership perceptions and team performance. The Leadership Quarterly, 17(3), 232–245. doi:10.1016/j.leaqua.2006.02.003.

Morgeson, F. P., DeRue, D. S., & Karam, E. P. (2010). Leadership in teams: A functional approach to understanding leadership structures and processes. Journal of Management, 36(1), 5–39. doi:10.1177/0149206309347376.

Muethel, M., Gehrlein, S., & Hoegl, M. (2012). Socio-demographic factors and shared leadership behaviors in dispersed teams: Implications für human resource management. Human Resource Management, 51(4), 525–548. doi:10.1002/hrm.

Nielsen, K., & Daniels, K. (2012). Does shared and differentiated transformational leadership predict followers' working conditions and well-being? The Leadership Quarterly, 23(3), 383397. doi:10.1016/j.leaqua.2011.09.001.

Pearce, C. L., & Conger, J. A. (2003). All those years ago. The historical underpinnings of shared leadership. In C. Pearce & J. Conger (Hrsg.), Shared leadership. reframing the hows and whys of leadership (S. 1–18). Thousand Oaks: Sage.

Pearce, C. L., & Sims, H. P. (2002). Vertical versus shared leadership as predictors of the effectiveness of change management teams: An examination of aversive, directive, transactional, transformational, and empowering leader behaviors. Group Dynamics: Theory, Research, and Practice, 6(2), 172–197. doi:10.1037//10892699.6.2.172.

Pearce, C. L. (2004). The future of leadership: Combining vertical and shared leadership to transform knowledge work. Academy of Management Executive, 18(1), 47–57. doi:10.5465/AME.2004.12690298.

Pearce, C. L., Conger, J. A., & Locke, E. A. (2008). Shared leadership theory. The Leadership Quarterly, 19(5), 622–628. doi:10.1016/j.leaqua.2008.07.005.

Pearce, C. L., Manz, C. C., & Sims, H. P. (2009). Where do we go from here?: Is shared leadership the key to team success? Organizational Dynamics, 38(3), 234–238. doi:10.1016/ j.orgdyn.2009.04.008.

Perry, M. L., Pearce, C. L., & Sims, H. P. (1999). Empowered selling teams: How shared leaderships can contribute to selling team outcomes. Journal of Personal Selling & Sales Management, 19(3), 35–51.

Peters, L. H., Hartke, D. D., & Pohlmann, J. T. (1985). Fiedler's contingency theory of leadership: An application of the meta-analysis procedures of Schmidt and Hunter. Psychological Bulletin, 97(2), 274–285. doi:10.1037//0033-2909.97.2.274.

Plowman, D. A., Solansky, S., Beck, T. E., Baker, L., Kulkarni, M., & Travis, D. V. (2007). The role of leadership in emergent, self-organization. The Leadership Quarterly, 18(4), 341–356. doi:10.1016/j.leaqua.2007.04.004.

Quistorp, S. (2011). Organisationen als fluide Systemstrukturen verstehen und führen. In J. Rump, F. Schabel, & S. Grabmeier (Hrsg.), Auf dem weg in die organisation 2.0: Mut zur unsicherheit (S. 77–87). Sternenfels: Wissenschaft & Praxis.

Raelin, J. A. (2005). We the leaders: In order to form a leaderful organization. Journal of Leadership & Organizational Studies, 12(2), 18–30. doi:10.1177/107179190501200202.

Ramthun, A. J., & Matkin, G. S. (2012). Multicultural shared leadership: A conceptual model of shared leadership in culturally diverse teams. Journal of Leadership & Organizational Studies, 19(3), 303–314. doi:10.1177/1548051812444129.

Shondrick, S. J., Dinh, J. E., & Lord, R. G. (2010). Developments in implicit leadership theory and cognitive science: Applications to improving measurement and understanding alternatives to hierarchical leadership. The Leadership Quarterly, 21(6), 959–978. doi:0.1016/j.leaqua.2010.10.004.

Sivasubramaniam, N., Murry, W. D., Avolio, B. J., & Jung, D. I. (2002). A longitudinal model of the effects of team leadership and group potency on group performance. Group & Organization Management, 27(1), 66–96. doi:10.1177/1059601102027001005.

Small, E. E., & Rentsch, J. R. (2010). Shared leadership in teams: A matter of distribution.

Journal of Personnel Psychology, 9(4), 203–211. doi:10.1027/18665888/a000017.

Solansky, S. T. (2008). Leadership style and team processes in self-managed teams. Journal of Leadership & Organizational Studies, 14(4), 332–341. doi:10.1177/1548051808315549.

Solomon, A., Loeffler, F. J., & Frank, G. H. (1953). An analysis of co-therapist interaction in group psychotherapy. International Journal of Group Psychotherapy, 3, 171–180.

Sorrentino, R. M. (1973). An extension of theory of achievement motivation to the study of emergent leadership. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 26(3), 356–368. doi:10.1037/h0034476.

Spreitzer, G. M. (1995). Psychological empowerment in the workplace: Dimensions, measurement, and validation. Academy of Management Journal, 38(5), 14421465. doi:10.2307/ 256865.

Stentz, J. E., Plano Clark, V. L., & Matkin, G. S. (2012, Oktober). Applying mixed methods to leadership research: A review of current practices. The Leadership Quarterly, 23(6), 1173–1183. doi:10.1016/j.leaqua.2012.10.001.

Stewart, G. L., Courtright, S. H., & Manz, C. C. (2010). Self-leadership: A multilevel review.

Journal of Management, 37(1), 185–222. doi:10.1177/0149206310383911.

Stogdill, R. M. (1950). Leadership, membership and organization. Psychological Bulletin, 47(1), 1–14. doi:10.1037/h0053857.

Stogdill, R. M. (1974). Handbook of leadership: A survey of the literature. New York: Free Press.

Thorpe, R., Gold, J., & Lawler, J. (2011). Locating distributed leadership. International Journal of Management Reviews, 13(3), 239–250. doi:10.1111/j.14682370.2011.00303.x.

Turner, C. E. (1933). Test room studies in employee effectiveness. American Journal of Public Health, 23(6), 577–84. doi:10.2105/AJPH.23.6.577.

Uhl-Bien, M., Marion, R., & McKelvey, B. (2007). Complexity leadership theory: Shifting leadership from the industrial age to the knowledge era. The Leadership Quarterly, 18(4), 298–318. doi:10.1016/j.leaqua.2007.04.002.

van Ginkel, W. P., & van Knippenberg, D. (2012). Group leadership and shared task representations in decision making groups. The Leadership Quarterly, 23(1), 94–106. doi:10.1016/ j.leaqua.2011.11.008.

Wang, D., Waldman, D. A., & Zhang, Z. (2013). A meta-analysis of shared leadership and team effectiveness. Journal of Applied Psychology, Advance online publication. doi:10.1037/a0034531.

Waldersee, R., & Eagleson, G. (2002). Shared leadership in the implementation of reorientations. Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 23(7), 400–407. doi:10.1108/ 01437730210445838.

Weinblatt, U., & Omer, H. (2008). Nonviolent resistance: a treatment for parents of children with acute behavior problems. Journal of Marital and Family Therapy, 34(1), 75–92. doi:10.1111/j.1752-0606.2008.00054.x.

Werther, S. (2013). Geteilte Führung in Teams – Ein Paradigmenwechsel in der Führungsforschung. Wiesbaden: Springer Gabler.

Werther, S., & Brodbeck, F. C. (2014). Geteilte Führung als Führungsmodell: Merkmale erfolgreicher Führungskräfte. PERSONALquarterly, 1, 22–27.

Winter, S. K. (1976). Developmental stages in the roles and concerns of group co-leaders.

Small Group Research, 7(3), 349–362. doi:10.1177/104649647600700307.

Yammarino, F. J., Salas, E., Serban, A., Shirreffs, K., & Shuffler, M. L. (2012). Collectivistic leadership approaches: Putting the 'We' in leadership science and practice. Industrial and Organizational Psychology, 5(4), 382–402. doi:10.1111/j.17549434.2012.01467.x.

Yukl, G. A. (2006). Leadership in organizations. Upper Saddle River: Pearson/Prentice Hall.

Zohar, D., & Tenne-Gazit, O. (2008). Transformational leadership and group interaction as climate antecedents: A social network analysis. Journal of Applied Psychology, 93(4), 744–757. doi:10.1037/0021-9010.93.4.744.

 
Fehler gefunden? Bitte markieren Sie das Wort und drücken Sie die Umschalttaste + Eingabetaste  
< Zurück   INHALT
 
Fachgebiet
Betriebswirtschaft & Management
Erziehungswissenschaft & Sprachen
Geographie
Informatik
Kultur
Lebensmittelwissenschaft & Ernährung
Marketing
Maschinenbau
Medien und Kommunikationswissenschaft
Medizin
Ökonomik
Pädagogik
Philosophie
Politikwissenschaft
Psychologie
Rechtswissenschaft
Sozialwissenschaften
Statistik
Finanzen
Umweltwissenschaften