The right to the city, and justice within it requires the derivative right to an Inclusive City. These “rights” are clearly tied to the notion of a cosmopolitan city, where people have learned to live with diversity and to respect each other's differences. Marius Ossewaarde (2007) argues that cosmopolitanism requires an appreciation of a global humanity. “This appreciation depends on weaker social bonds between locals, thus allowing for a more abstract, universal, indeterminate and virtual” community that would include the Other (ebd. 2007). Cosmopolites, or “citizens of the world,” are essentially those who willingly belong to the same community as diverse Others. Such an idealized urban condition is something devotedly to be wished.
For the past 50 years I have subversively employed visual technologies coupled with standard social science practices as an activist, and public scholar, to demonstrate how the local community practices of excluded groups mimic those of the
Fig. 6 Grandfather and child.© Jerry Krase 2010. (Source: Scenes of family and friends socializing are a large part of the normal visual repertoire migrant areas but are less likely to be part of the visual repertoire of the mass media)
Fig. 7 Children in playground. Oslo, © Jerry Krase 2010. (Source: I have photographed children playing in cities around the globe. They are the most difficult of visual subjects to despise, even by the most bigoted viewers)
Fig. 8 “Bollywood” video store, Oslo, © Jerry Krase 2010. (Source: “Bollywood” has become a global semiotic for south Asian cinema and its prominence in the Toyen district of Oslo is an indication that here is large south Asian population nearby to patronize the store)
dominant society and therefore deserve to be included in it. Each culture has its own virtual ideal of local community and ordinary members of society are often unable to see minorities as legitimate citizens of the cities they share. In my work I have often used images to show community in otherwise stigmatized places, and to counter negative images and related stereotypes. Here I illustrated a walk I took through Oslo, Norway in the summer of 2010 where, in the summer of 2011, Anders Behring Breivik killed eight people when he detonated a bomb in central Oslo. Later that same day he opened fire, killing 69 more, at a youth camp because he thought it was necessary in order stop the “Islamisation” of Norway. Breivik also accused the governing Labour Party of promoting multiculturalism and endangering Norway's identity. It must be noted, that he was not declared insane despite appeals by prosecutors (BBC 2012). Since that horrific incident, Norway has seen the successful rise of anti-immigrant electoral politics.
Despite similar creative insights, my walk through Toyen was not a derive or Situationist “drifting” as one might imply. Instead it was a purposive method for
Fig. 9 Oslo Kabob et al. Oslo, © Jerry Krase 2010. (Source: Many visual expressions of hybridization, if not assimilation, of migrant entrepreneurs are expressed in commercial signage that invites the patronage of inside as well as outside group members)
documentation for subsequent comparative analysis of “neglected” phenomena. (Krase and Shortell 2011; Shortell and Krase 2013) As Debord (1955) advised:
The sudden change of ambiance in a street within the space of a few meters; the evident division of a city into zones of distinct psychic atmospheres; the path of least resistance that is automatically followed in aimless strolls (and which has no relation to the physical contour of the terrain); the appealing or repelling character of certain places—these phenomena all seem to be neglected. In any case they are never envisaged as depending on causes that can be uncovered by careful analysis and turned to account.
I ask rhetorically what has the reader seen or read about Toyen that would lead a rational person to casually murder its residents or otherwise exclude them from membership in an “Inclusive City.”
Fig. 10 Poster invitation to Iftar dinner, Oslo, © Jerry Krase 2010. (Source: This particular invitation for the “Annual Conference and Community Iftar Dinner” was at one of the two local Muslim community centers, but others in several languages, were distributed throughout the district. Such signs can be read as attempts at inclusiveness)
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